In 1858 Russia gained control of Outer Manchuria thanks to the Treaty of Tientsin that ended the first phase of the Second Opium War. Inner Manchuria came under strong russian influence in the 1890s with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok. With Treaty of Shimonoseki (april 1895), that ended the First Sino-Japanese War, China recognized over the nominal independence (in fact, japanese control) of Korea and ceded the Liaodong peninsula to Japan. France, Germany and Great Britain, took advantage of the situation in China and gained port and trade concessions at the expense of the decaying Qing Empire; anti-foreign sentiment and agitation grew and would later culminate in the Boxer Rebellion between 1898 and 1901. Manchuria was rich in grain, coal and iron, and was also blessed with warm water ports, eagerly coveted by the russians for their Pacific fleet. Japan was forced to relinquish the Liaodong peninsula in exchange for a financial indemnity. The european powers, Russia especially, did feel that Japan should not gain Port Arthur, for they had their own ambitions in that part of the world, so Russia persuaded Germany and France to join her in applying diplomatic pressure on the japanese (Triple Intervention, april 1985). In 1902 Japan formed an alliance with Britain, this was a check to prevent either Germany or France from intervening militarily in any future war with Russia. Negotiations between the two nations (1901-04) to establish mutual recognition of respective spheres of influence, Russia over Manchuria and Japan over Korea, were repeatedly and intentionally stalled by the russians. As a direct result of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05), japanese influence replaced Russia's in Inner Manchuria. Korea became japanese protectorate in 1905, and was effectively annnexed to the empire in 1910. The Republic of China was founded in 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution which overthrew the Qing dynasty; however, central authority succumbed to that of regional warlords. Some warlords even aligned themselves with various foreign powers in an effort to wipe each other out (the warlord Zhang Zuolin of Manchuria openly cooperated with the Japanese for military and economic assistance). Following World War I, Japan acquired the German Empire's sphere of influence in Shandong. Japanese influence extended into Outer Manchuria in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917, but had reverted to Soviet control by 1925. To unite China under the party and eradicate regional warlords, the Kuomintang (KMT, or Chinese Nationalist Party) launched the Northern Expedition of 1926-28 with the National Revolutionary Army (NRA). In 1930, large-scale civil war broke out between warlords who had fought in alliance with the KMT during the expedition. In addition, the Chinese Communists (CCP, or Communist Party of China) revolted against the central government following a purge of its members by the KMT in 1927. The chaotic situation in China provided excellent opportunities for japanese expansionism. Japan formally detached Manchuria from China in the course of the 1930s through semi-private investments, which with the rich of the natural resources developed the area in an industrial powerhouse. The summit of various small engagements between japanese and chinese along the borders was the Mukden Incident, also known as the Manchurian Incident, a staged event engineered by Kwantong Army leadership as a pretext for invading Manchuria on september 1931. Within five months the imperial japanese army had overrun all major towns and cities in the provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang; in 1932 the puppet state of Manchukuo was established in the region. There was an ongoing campaign to defeat the anti-Japanese volunteer armies that arose from widespread outrage over the policy of non-resistance to Japan. In 1933 Japan detached the province of Jehol from China thanks the success of Operation Nekka and moreover the japanese attacked the Great Wall region obteining the control of Rehe province; both these provinces were annexed to the new state of Manchukuo. The Tangu Truce of may 1933 established a ceasefire between the IJA and the KMT NRA including the creation of a buffer-zone along the southern Manchukuo borders. The centre of conflict between Japan and China shifted west to Inner Mongolia, where proxy armies were used by both sides over the province of Charar and Suiyuan. In a series of actions, starting in 1933, the armies of Manchukuo and Japan occupied Chahar, which in 1936 proclaimed itself independent, allied with Japan. In 1936 and 1937, similar operations in Suiyuan saw the occupation and absorption of that province also. Japan sought various chinese collaborators and helped them to establish a friendly governments; this policy was called the Specialization of North China, or North China Autonomous Movement, and interested the northern chinese provinces as Chahar and Suiyuan. Meanwhile chinese volunteer forces continued to resist japanese aggression in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia. In december 1936 KMT and CCP agreed to a temporary end to chinese civil war and it was created a united front against Japan. On 7 july 1937, Marco Polo bridge incident marked the begin of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Simultaneously the Republic of China fought the soviet forces in the Xinjiang War, region where was established a chinese pro-soviet governor. In september 1937, the soviet leadership signed the Sino-Soviet Non Aggression Pact and approved Operation Zet, soviet aid to China (ended in 1941 as result of Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact). Germany withdrew its support to nationalist China in 1938 as consequence of the Anti-Comintern Pact (1936) signed with Japan. At the same time, there were an hundred over of minor soviets-japanese incidents on the borders of Manchukuo between 1932 and 1934; the number of clashes increased between 1935 and 1936 and the scale of incidents became larger. This conflict situation developed an undeclared border war, the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars, beetween Japan, Manchunkuo, Urss and Mongolia. Last results in 1938 and 1939 convinced Japan to undirect its efforts in this region.
Following the Russo-Japanese War, Japan obtained the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. The Kwantung Garrison was established in 1906 to defend this territory and after a reorganization in 1919 becaming army. The Kwantung Army was a stronghold of the radical Imperial Way Faction, a political faction in the IJA, active in the 1920s and 1930s and largely supported by junior officers aiming to establish a military government, that promoted totalitarian, militarist, and expansionist ideals. It also advocated a more aggressive, expansionist foreign policy regarding the asian mainland. Members were active in numerous coup d'état attempts against the civilian government, culminating with the February 26 Incident of 1936 (a purge of japanese political and business leaders, Showa Restoration). Although the Kwantung Army was nominally subordinate, its leadership often acted in direct violation of the orders from the mainland Japan without suffering any consequence. Conspirators within the junior officer corps of the Kwantung Army plotted and carried out the assassination of manchurian warlord Zhang Zoulin in 1928, when they found him too independent. Afterwards, the Kwantung Army leadership engineered the Mukden Incident and the subsequent invasion of Manchuria in 1931, helped by a collaborationist chinese army of a pro-japanese secession movement organized by general Xi Qia, in a massive act of insubordination against the express orders of the political and military leadership based in Tokyo; presented with the fait accompli, mainland had little choice but to follow up on the actions of the Kwantung Army with reinforcements in the subsequent pacification of Manchukuo. The success of the campaign meant that the insubordination was rewarded rather than punished. With the foundation of Manchukuo in 1932, the Kwantung Army played a controlling role in the political administration of the new state as well as in its defense, the puppet-state formed Manchukuo Imperial Army to support the japanese. The Kwantung Army fought in numerous border skirmishes with chinese forces as part of its efforts to create a japanese-dominated buffer zone in northern China, and in a series of border conflicts agaist the soviet forces since 1932 in the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars. It also fought in Operation Nekka in Jehol and the battle of the Great Wall, using the collaborationist chinese National Salvation Army, and various actions in Inner Mongolia to extend japanese domination over portions of northern China and Inner Mongolia. When Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in july 1937 its forces participated in battle of Beiping-Tianjin and Operation Chahar, supported by Inner Mongolia Army of indipendent pro-japanese movement of the autonomous pro-kapanese government. Later forces were taken from Kwantung Army to support the war in China from time to time, in each place the japanese captured, a collaborationist army might be formed and given various names, depending on which collaborationist leader or puppet regime it was organized under. However, the much vaunted reputation of the Kwantung Army was severely challenged in battle against the Soviet Union's Red Army at the battle of Lake Khasan in 1938 and subsequent battle of Nomonhan in 1939, during which time it sustained heavy casualties. After the Nomonhan incident, the Kwantung Army was purged of its more insubordinate elements, as well as proponents of the Hokushin-ron doctrine who urged that Japan concentrate its expansionist efforts on Siberia rather southward towards China and Southeast Asia.
Chinese Eastern Railway
After the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95, Russia gained the right to build the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) in Manchuria. This railway provided a shortcut for the world's longest railroad, the Trans-Siberian Railway, from near the siberian city of Chita, across northern Inner Manchuria via Harbin to the russian port of Vladivostok. Work on the CER began in July 1897 and accelerated after Russia concluded a twenty-five year lease of Liaodong from China in 1898. The southern branch of the CER, known in the west as the South Manchuria Railway (SMR), linked Harbin, leading southwards through eastern Manchuria, along the Liaodong peninsula, to Port Arthur. Following the japanese victory over imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05, and the signing of the treaty of Portsmouth, the SMR was transferred to japanese control and so the administration within the railway zone. The SMR company Mantetsu, founded in 1906, operated in the japanese-controlled SMR zone, quickly expanding the economical and infrastructural system inherited from Russia. From 1916, Mantestu began to spin off a number of subsidiary companies. The japanese corporation was the developer of the Japan's colonial program in the territory through the enlargement of the agricultural and extractive capacity, the building of industries and facilities in the harbors, over the construction of public utilities which encouraged japanese settlers. After 1924, Ussr and China administered the Northern CER jointly. The Sino-Soviet conflict of 1929 was fought when the forces of warlord Zhang Xueliang of the Republic of China seized the manchurian CER; swift soviet military intervention quickly put an end to the crisis and forced the chinese to accept restoration of joint soviet-chinese administration of the railway. In 1935 Ussr had to sell all its rights on the CER to the Manchukuo government.
Between 1931 and 1932 emerged the early chinese resistance to the japanese occupation of Manchuria in the form of citizen militias, peasant brotherhoods and bandit gangs (preview government troops had great difficulty in suppressing them as would the japanese and Manchukuo forces in later years). The frontier status of Manchuria, with endemic banditry and activities by opposing warlords led leading citizens and village authorities to form private militias for the protection of their property and landholdings even before the japanese invasion of Manchuria. After japanese occupation these militias became partisan band styled themselves with various names. Peasant brotherhoods were a traditional form of mutual protection by chinese small-holders and tenant farmer. Many bandits were admitted into the Volunteer Armies as the japanese conquest advanced and the partisan resistance became an increasingly popular cause. The Pacification of Manchukuo was a campaign to pacify the resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo against the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies of Manchuria and later the communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army which took place from march 1932 until 1941, which resulted in a japanese victory.
Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army
After japanese occupation of Manchuria in 1931, the CCP organized anti-japanese guerrilla units, and formed the Northeastern People's Revolutionary Army. Despite party disapproval, some party members joined or rendered assistance to various anti-japanese volunteer armies fighting the japanese and the forces of Manchukuo. In 1934, after the defeat of the volunteer armies, all these communist party units were reorganized into the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army (NAJUA), mainly supported by Comintern. This force continued the struggle against the japanese pacification of Manchukuo. In 1935, the party officially changed policy, and began creating a united front, absorbing most of the remaining anti-japanese forces in Manchuria and Korean resistance fighters. The army also contained a large number of ethnic koreans (both the koreans from Manchuria, and koreans from the korean peninsula), who chose Manchuria as a place to resist japanese imperialism. The operations to sweep NAJUA began in mid-1930 and later years of fighting, the army was gradually worn down by the japanese pacification campaign of Manchukuo.
The soviet-japanese relations, officially established in 1925, were characterized by a tense rivalry and deep suspicion almost throughout the entire 1930s. The occupation of northern Manchuria in 1932, which was traditionally regarded as a territory within the russian sphere of influence, rose the tensions. Manchukuo empire had about 4000 km long border with Soviet Union in the east and north, and about 740 km long border with the Mongolian People's Republic in the west. Between 1932 and 1934 there were an hundred of minor soviets-japanese incidents on the border of Manchuria, and the number increased between 1935 and 1936.
Soviet Far East Front
The Far Eastern Military District traces its history originally to the East Siberian Military District originally formed in 1918, during the russian civil war. Following the soviet victory in the civil war, the forces in the area became the Special Red Banner Far Eastern Army (OKDVA) of the Far Eastern Republic (disestablished in 1922). The army became the Soviet Far East Front (NKVD) in june 1938, during the great purge.
Mongolian People's Republic
In 1920, one of the first actions of the newly created Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party was the creation of a native communist army in order to fight against russian troops from the White Movement and chinese forces. The MPRP was aided by the Red Army, which helped to secure the area and remained in its territory until at least 1925. In 1936 the soviets proclaimed the Mongolian People's Republic.
In February 1933, following the successful Japanese invasion of Jehol, the Kwantung Army left a small japanese detachment and the much larger Manchukuo Imperial Army to watch the eastern Jehol border, while the balance of the japanese forces moved south to engage the chinese on the Great Wall. Blocked from further advance south by the Tanggu Truce, the IJA turned its attention west, towards the inner mongolian provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, with the goal of establishing a northern China buffer state. In order to avoid overt violation of the truce, the japanese government used proxy armies in the campaigns in inner Mongolia (1933-1936) while chinese resistance was at first only provided by anti-japanese resistance movement forces in Chahar. In late april 1936 representatives from Inner Mongolia, Tsinghai and Outer Mongolia attended the japanese meeting called State-Founding Conference, where over it was made a plane to create a new Mongolian Empire, which would encompass all of Inner and Outer Mongolia and Tsinghai province: as a result of this conference, the Mongol Military Government was formed on may 1936. A mutual assistance agreement with Manchukuo was concluded in July 1936, and Japan agreed to provide both military and economic aid. Chinese government forces were overtly hostile to the anti-japanese resistance and resisted japanese and allied inner mongol aggression in the failed Suiyuan campaign of winter 1936. The defeat of Japan's proxy forces encouraged many chinese into pushing for a more active resistance against the japanese. Small scale of combat continued in Suiyuan until the beginning of open hostilities following the Marco Polo bridge incident. Through Operation Chahar, occurred in august 1937, and battle of Taiyuan the japanese and allied inner mongol forces captured eastern Suiyuan province. The battle of Taiyuan concluded in loss for the NRA, including part of Suiyuan, most of Shanxi and effectively ended large scale regular resistance in the north China area.
National Revolutionary Army
The NRA was founded by the KMT in 1925 as the military force destined to unify China against warlordism. Originally it was organized with soviet aid. Chiang Kai-shek, became commander-in-chief of the army before launching the successful Northern Expedition in 1928, often taken as the date when China's warlord era ends, though smaller-scale warlord activity continued for years afterwards. The NRA absorved massive amounts of warlord and provincial armies after their leaders joined the KMT and were appointed as officers and Generals. In 1927, after the dissolution of the First United Front between the nationalists and the communists, the ruling KMT purged its leftist members and largely eliminated soviet influence from its ranks. Chiang Kai-shek then turned to Germany, historically a great military power, but limited by restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, for the reorganisation and modernisation of the NRA. When Adolf Hitler became chancellor in 1933 and disavowed the treaty, the anti-communist Nazi Party and the anti-communist KMT were soon engaged in close cooperation with Germany training chinese troops and expanding chinese infrastructure, while China opened its markets and natural resources to Germany.
i was looking for some resources on blitkrieg espanol site and i've seen published a review on this work. there's write that it's for 7.50.1 version but in reality in for 7.77. it born for 7.50 but then i downloaded the 7.77 ver and i substituted some tanks with new of 7.77. i don't know if someone have correct something to go to work it with 7.50.1. anyway, if you need the previous 7.50 version i can trasmit that to you. i don't know with who i must talk, i've seen steiner1942 made the translation. i'm glad anyone have plaied that work.
hi @leonidas, i like the well ordered archive on your espanol site. yesterday i was there because i'm looking for resources (IFFP) and maps ... old maps as done for GPW2, but unfortunaly there're some links which don't work, maybe too old those maps? [GPW]Springtime Skirmish [GPW]Into Stalingrad (Updated) [GPW]Bottlestopper [GPW]France 1944. The fact is i left BKportal era because at that time i didn't have an internet connection, i know i'm arrived later for these kind of things.
for who have plaied this work, please put here comments or suggestions. i've changed and improve my mode of mapping than that time i did this chapter, but i'm curious to know the people how think on it?
jmww2: Does somebody know how to play gsm 11 in multiplayer?
Oct 13, 2022 23:19:37 GMT 1
jmww2: I am also looking for the tank and flora passability fix
Oct 13, 2022 23:20:11 GMT 1
vojta: actually, some of them are (successful)
Oct 14, 2022 10:45:40 GMT 1
vojta: 30% i would say
Oct 14, 2022 10:46:16 GMT 1
Grot: vojta Interesting , I couldn't dl anything and now cant even access that site
Oct 19, 2022 16:59:00 GMT 1
Warlord: Lads, does anyone know if in the Burma Road map (Chinese Campaign) of GZM11, the Jap bomber and strike planes ever run out? I have been shooting them down for about three hours now, and they just keep showing up! My strategy is based on air supremacy...
Oct 30, 2022 21:07:39 GMT 1
Squire James: Try and load it in the map editor and have a look at the aviation section. If the numbers seem normal, it might be a scripting thing (if so, that'd be rather neat)
Oct 31, 2022 4:07:32 GMT 1
Warlord: Thank you, mate.
Nov 1, 2022 21:48:30 GMT 1
mariotim: Hello! I do not have sound any longer in Blitzkrieg, using Windows 11 Home N. Do you know how to restore the sound? Thank you!
Nov 6, 2022 8:39:27 GMT 1
Grot: who bombed my tractor!
Nov 16, 2022 12:08:35 GMT 1
Warlord: Lads, has anyone had issues playing Operation Trident, 1960, in GZM11? Mission crashes once you deploy the paratroopers...
Nov 22, 2022 22:08:07 GMT 1
Grot: Warlord works fine for me
Nov 24, 2022 23:30:01 GMT 1
Warlord: Mate, this same mission?
Dec 1, 2022 1:25:14 GMT 1
Grot: Si Señor , delete maps and scenarios folders . Restart mission see if it helps
Dec 1, 2022 14:15:55 GMT 1
Grot: If nothing works I can upload save file for you after para drop .. there is another drop just after paratroopers landed (from helicopter this time) with 2 mortars and heavy MG
Dec 1, 2022 22:27:26 GMT 1